Eyelid surgery is a common method of treatment for entropion (inward turning of the eyelid), ectropion (outward turning of the eyelid), ptosis (drooping of the eyelid), and some eyelid tumors.
Eyelid surgery is usually an outpatient procedure with local anesthesia. Risks of surgery are rare, but include asymmetry of the eyelids. Differences in healing between the eyes may cause some unevenness after surgery.
After eyelid surgery, a black eye is common but goes away quickly. It may be difficult to close your eyelids completely, making the eyes feel dry. This irritation generally disappears as the surgery heals. Serious complications are rare but include vision loss, scarring, and infection. To most people, the improvement in vision, comfort and appearance after eyelid surgery is very gratifying.
A tumor is an abnormal growth of any tissue or structure and can be either benign or malignant. A tumor can affect any part of the eye, such as the eye socket, eyeball, eye muscles, optic nerve, fat and tissues. Sometimes tumors grow into the eye area, or tumors from other parts of the body travel to the eye. Most tumors of the eye are benign.
Basal cell carcinomas are the most frequent type of malignant tumor to affect the eyelid (85-95% of all malignant eyelid tumors). The most frequent location is the inner portion of the lower eyelid, particularly in elderly fair-skinned people. Prolonged exposure to sunlight seems to be a risk factor for developing this form of tumor.
There are many different types of basal cell carcinomas but the nodular variety is one of the most common. It appears as a raised, firm, pearly nodule with tiny dilated blood vessels. If the nodule is in the eyelash area, some lashes may be missing. The nodule may have some superficial ulceration and crusting and look like a chalazion or stye. While these tumors are malignant, they rarely spread elsewhere in the body. For most of these tumors, surgery is the most effective treatment. In severe cases when the tumor has been neglected for a long time, it can spread into the eyesocket, which may ultimately require removal of the eye and adjacent tissue.
Squamous cell carcinoma is the next most frequent malignant eyelid tumor (occurring in approximately 5% of malignant eyelid tumors.) As with basal cell carcinoma, the most common location is the lower eyelid, particularly in elderly, fair-skinned people. This tumor also appears as a raised nodule that can lead to loss of eyelashes in the involved area. When detected and treated early, the outcome for this type of tumor is excellent. However, if the tumor is neglected, it can spread to the lymph nodes in the neck. Surgery is the most effective treatment.
Sebaceous cell carcinoma originates in glands of the eyelid in elderly individuals. It is relatively rare but still accounts for 1 to 5% of malignant eyelid tumors. These are highly malignant tumors that may recur, invade the eyesocket, or spread to lymph nodes. The tumor may look like a chalazion or stye, making it difficult to diagnose. Surgery is usually necessary for this type of tumor.
Malignant melanoma makes up almost 1% of all malignant eyelid tumors but accounts for many of the deaths from malignant eyelid tumors. As with any other type of malignant melanoma, these tumors on the eyelid can arise from a pre-existing nevus or mole, or may arise with no other pre-existing cause. Again, these tumors tend to occur in sun exposed areas of elderly fair-skinned people. Any pigmented area should be examined, especially if it is growing or changing color. Surgical removal is usually the recommended treatment.
Lacrimal Drainage Surgery (DCR: Dacryocystorhinostomy)
Keeping the eyes moist and healthy requires tears. Tears are produced in the lacrimal gland, located under the upper eyelid. Tears drain from the eye into the nose through the nasolacrimal duct, or tear duct. A blockage of this drainage duct can cause wet eyes or excessive tearing. A blocked tear duct can also cause mucus buildup in the eye or ongoing infections in the lacrimal sac where tears collect. Infections are noticeable as a swelling of the inner corner of the lower eyelid.
Nasolacrimal duct obstructions can happen with no obvious cause. Sometimes previous sinus or nose surgery, or facial trauma with broken facial bones, can obstruct the tear duct.
Lacrimal drainage surgery is called dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) and can be performed in different ways. One type of operation is an external DCR where an incision is made on the side of the nose, where eyeglasses might rest. A small amount of bone is removed to permit a new connection between the lacrimal sac and the inside of the nose. Small plastic tubes are inserted at the time of surgery to keep the newly created opening from scarring shut during the healing process. The tubing is removed a few months after surgery.
Another type of operation uses a special instrument called an endoscope. The endoscope is a small tube with a fiberoptic light that facilitates the creation of a new opening into the nose. Various types of laser have also been used to perform the DCR operation.
In extreme cases where the tear duct cannot be reopened or repaired, an artificial tear duct can be implanted. The artificial tear duct is called a Jones tube and is implanted behind the inner corner of the eyelid to drain tears into the nose.